A nation's prosperity is linked to good teachers. Our country has always respected this noble profession and has held the teachers in high esteem, almost next to God. Once Kabir wrote..
Guru govind daau khade, kaake laagun paun
Balihaari main guru aapke jin govind diyo milaye
It means that a true teacher helps to awaken our inner being and takes us to that level from where we can see God.
Guru or teacher literally means one who takes us out from darkness and brings us to light Gu (means darkness and Ru (means light)
In recent years the focus of Indian Education System has been on Education for All so much of the stress has been laid on literacy, adult education, extension education and distance education programmes. But there is yawning gap between pedagogic progress and actual translation. So this leaves much scope for those who aspire to be teachers and prove themselves. Those who want to pursue this noble profession and get the satisfaction of dispelling the clouds of ignorance in other human beings can opt for teaching. Moreover education is being regarded as a growing industry and a big business. One can earn pretty well in this field along with enjoying many fringe benefits. Another reason for opting teacher as a career could be interest in the subject, secure professional career and regular annual vacations. It can also be a second career for those who have retired from professional services.
Nature of Work
The work of a teacher varies according to the level of the job and the institution. Nursery level and kindergarten level: The teacher is responsible for social, emotional and intellectual growth of the children. They introduce children to basic science, numbers and languages and train them to use their hands and co-ordinate their limb movement, develop their natural talents by engaging them in sing-along rhymes, help in handling educational toys and material for painting, drawing, music and clay modelling.
Junior School level: The teachers instruct students between the age groups of 7 to 12 from class 1 to class 7. These teachers take classes almost for every subject.
Secondary School level: The secondary school teachers instruct students from 8th to 12th standard. Usually they deal with one particular subject in which they specialise. In addition to the subject they teach they have to take the responsibility of framing of school education programs and have to look after extra curricular activities like sports, drama and school outings. They have to interact with parents in school faculty meetings, prepare lesson plans, help students in their project work, prepare and correct test assignments etc
College and University level: In universities or colleges there are lecturers and professors who specialise in a particular field. They give lectures, guidance and help the students in their academic and research work. Those who have organising ability have a further scope to become a principal, vice-chancellor in the management level.
Special schools: A challenging area in the field of teaching is that of dealing with children having physical and mental handicap and learning disabilities. The work is emotionally and physically demanding which needs a lot of patience. They have to work in close association with parents and medical professionals like speech therapist physiotherapist etc. It is different from the normal teaching norms as each child needs special care depending on his/her disability. This work is emotionally and physically demanding therefore specialized training and skill is needed here to deal with specific problem.
Academic Administrator: Management College, school and university administrators such as Principals, Vice Chancellors and Members on the Board of Management branch off from teaching to become administrators. It includes planning of time tables, organising activities and interacting with parents and authorities.
A good teacher is one who teaches to comprehend rather than mug up studies, one who imbibes values to last long in life, one who escapes the monotonous drill of text books and brings in excitement while teaching and learning, one who hold attention of the class of almost 50 students, for over 45 minutes each day in and day out!
One should have a bend of mind towards teaching, patience, confidence, above average intelligence and liking for and an understanding of children which is a must. One must have an organizing capacity, friendly and helpful nature to enter into this field. Teacher should have the ability to communicate well, to create a liking in young minds even in the case of most boring subjects. She/he should have a deep passion for the subject one handles. Must encourage in students the ability to analyse and think. A teacher must always remember that apart from teaching it is he/she who shapes a child's character. Teacher has to be a friend, philosopher and guide to his wards.
- Pre-primary: Most polytechnics are vocational training centres conduct training for pre-school teachers. The preferred eligibility is Class XII with 50% aggregate. Personal attributes are, however, more important. There are Montessori teacher training schools which are privately owned in some large cities.
- Primary teacher training: Teachers with diplomas in education / Bachelors in education teach the primary classes. Graduates of Home Science also serve as primary teachers
- Secondary and senior secondary teachers: Teachers having B Ed Degrees after graduation are called Trained Graduate Teachers (TGTs), after postgraduation they are called post graduate trained teachers (PGTs). This training is imparted in teacher's training colleges.
- Some universities offer these courses through correspondence: For in service teachers to get trained. There are contact programmes for giving practical orientation. In 1996, the National council for Teacher Education (NCTE) has regulated the training of teachers. Correspondence/distance education courses are meant for teachers who are currently working.
- Lecturers: College lecturers require a good academic record with at least 55% or an equivalent grade at master's degree level in the relevant subject from an Indian University or a foreign University. The eligibility test for lecturers, National Eligibility Test (NET), is conducted by UGC, CSIR or similar tests accredited by the UGC. The State level test SLET is for appointments within the state. The promotion is based on performance, duration of service, and research publications.
- Nursery teachers: Training of 1-2 years at Polytechnics/ Vocational Training Institutes.
- After Graduation: (Any school subject), a Bachelors in Education (B Ed) for TGT Grade Jobs
- After Post graduation: (Any school subject), B Ed for PGT grade jobs.
- After Post graduation / M.Phil: Take the NET/ SLET Exam for College Teaching
- After B.Ed: One can go for M.Ed
Nursery schools: Nursery Teachers Training. Minimum qualification: 10+2
Middle schools: Teachers Training Certificate (TTC) or its equivalent. Minimum qualification: 10+2
High Schools: Bachelor of Education (B.Ed). Minimum qualification: Graduation
Colleges/Universities: Post Graduate degree, preferably with Doctoral Degree. Also have to qualify the National Eligibility Test (NET) conducted by University Grants commission (UGC).
Special schools: Diploma in Special Education. Minimum qualification: 10+2
Colleges, Institutions and Universities
Practically every university offers both Master's and Bachelor's degree in education and teaching as well as diploma courses in primary teaching. Most of the polytechnics offer diploma in nursery teaching. A few of the prominent education institutions are:
- College Of Education, Delhi University, Bhai Parmanand Institute Of Business, Shakarpur, Delhi
- .R. Memorial Nursery Teachers Training Institute, Nilothi Morh, Delhi 110041
- Institute Of Advanced Studies In Education, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, Delhi 110025
- Lady Irwin College, Sikandara Road, Near I.T.O, Delhi
- University Of Delhi, Dept. Of Education, 33 Chhatra Marg, Delhi 110007
- Women's Training Institute (YWCA of Delhi), Bangla Sahib Lane, New Delhi 110001
- Govt. College Of Education, Sector 20-D Chandigarh 160020
- State Institute of Education, Sector 32-C, P.O. Sec-47, Chandigarh 160047
- Annamalai College Of Education, Tuticorin 628003
- Annamalai University, Department of Education, Annamalai Nagar 628002
- Bharathiar University, Maruthamalai Road, Coimbatore 641046
- Berhampur Govt. Primary Teachers Training Institute, PO. Berhampur, Murchdabad Distt. 742101
- Kalimpong Govt. Primary Teachers Training Institute, PO. Kalimpong, Darjeeling Dt. 734301
- NIMH Regional Training Center, NIOH campus, Bonhooghly, B.T. Road, Kolkatta 700090
- Amravati University, Tapowan Road Camp, Amravati 444602
- Arya Vidya Mandir Institute Of Education, Plot No. 287, J.V.P.D. Scheme, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400049
- Aligarh Muslim University, Department OF Education, Aligarh 202002
- Bareilly College, Department Of B.Ed., Bareilly 243001
- Banaras Hindu University, Faculty Of Education, Kamachana Campus, Varanasi 221005
- Buddha P.G College, Dept. Of Education, Kushinagar 274403
- Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208024
- Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut 250005
Teachers can find employment in
- Play schools
- Nursery schools
- Primary/elementary schools
- Secondary schools
- Educational research institutes
- Special schools
- Self employment by starting institutes or tutorials
- Opportunities abroad in countries like U.S and Gulf in view of the projected shortage of teachers.
According to the 5th Commission scale,all school teachers should be given a scale of Rs 9,000 to begin with, with an increment of approx Rs 2,000 each year. In reality this is not so. In private schools the salary is a negotiable factor, can be anything from Rs 2,000 onwards, depending on the candidate, experience, need and mostly performance of school. There is no mandatory appraisal system in schools, so increments are at the will of the management.
At primary level teachers earn around Rs 5000 to Rs 8000 whereas at senior level teachers can get a scale of around Rs 12,000 to Rs 15,000. Perks and other benefits are also enjoyed by them like free accommodation; free meals etc depending on the institutions.
Lectures draw a salary of Rs. 10,500 to Rs 12,500 at the entry level. The salary of senior level lectures is around Rs 12,000 to Rs 15,500.
The pay scale of professors ranges from Rs 14,400 to Rs 25,400.